Nonsurgical Treatment for Osteonecrosis
If osteonecrosis is diagnosed while damage is limited to a small area of bone, doctors at NYU Langone may recommend medication to stop the disease from progressing to arthritis and causing permanent joint damage. Medication may also relieve pain and increase mobility.
Medication to treat osteonecrosis may not be effective in people who have medical conditions that require treatment using corticosteroids, immunosuppressant medications, or chemotherapy. These medications may counteract osteonecrosis treatment.
During treatment with medication to stop the progression of osteonecrosis, your doctor monitors bone damage by taking periodic images of the affected bone for six months to a year or more. Our doctors may also recommend using crutches or a brace to remove stress from the affected bones.
As the bone starts to heal, physical therapy can help you maintain joint mobility, strengthen muscle groups that support the joint, and make changes to the way you walk to protect the affected bones. If the disease does not progress and putting weight on the joint becomes less painful, nonsurgical treatment may be all that is needed to recover from osteonecrosis.
Bisphosphonates are prescription medications that reduce bone loss by destroying cells that contribute to the degeneration of bone. This helps preserve healthy bone tissue.
Your doctor may recommend that you take this medication by mouth or injection for six months or more, depending on the size of the osteonecrosis lesion or lesions and whether symptoms improve during the first six months. If an injected form of medication is prescribed, your doctor may give the injection in his or her office or show you how to administer injections at home. Some bisphosphonates are taken by mouth or injection once a week or once a month, others less frequently.
Your doctor evaluates the effectiveness of treatment using periodic X-rays that can reveal changes in the bone’s health. The doctor also looks for signs of side effects from bisphosphonates, which may include bone fractures outside the affected joint, and conducts regular blood tests to check your physical wellbeing.
Long-term use of bisphosphonates should be monitored by your doctor.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Bone loss due to osteonecrosis may be painful, especially in the hip and knee joints, which bear much of the body’s weight. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, work by reducing inflammation in the soft tissues surrounding the joint, relieving pain and swelling. These over-the-counter pain relievers include ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin.
Long-term use of NSAIDs can cause side effects, including upset stomach or ulcers. If joint pain persists for more than a month, talk to your doctor before continuing use.
Statins are medications that lower cholesterol levels by reducing the amount of fatty substances called lipids in the bloodstream. If statins remove lipids from blood vessels leading to a diseased bone, more blood can reach the bone, allowing it to rebuild bone tissue. This may slow or stop the progression of osteonecrosis.
Statins can cause liver abnormalities and muscle damage, so your doctor takes your overall health and medical history into consideration before prescribing them for long-term use.
When prescribed in addition to medication, physical therapy may slow down the progression of osteonecrosis and provide some pain relief. During the early stages of treatment, if the disease has affected the hip or knee, physical therapists at NYU Langone’s Rusk Rehabilitation may suggest using crutches or a cane to help you move around without putting any weight on the affected joint.
Your may use crutches or a cane for six weeks or more, depending on your age, the location of the lesion, and the severity of the disease. This gives the lesions time to heal and may prevent further joint damage.
Our rehabilitation experts also offer heat and ice therapy, which may provide pain relief deep within the joint, as well as acupuncture and acupressure, in which very thin needles or massage are used to stimulate blood flow and reduce inflammation. These therapies are available onsite at NYU Langone.
After you can put weight on the affected joint without pain, our physical therapists can customize a routine of simple, low-impact exercises to maintain range of motion in the affected joint as well as build strength in muscles that surround and support the joint. For example, stretching exercises and movements such as leg lifts or squats can prevent the joint from becoming stiff.
In addition, adding exercise such as tai chi or swimming to your regular workout routine can help you maintain flexibility in the joint without putting too much stress on the bones. These exercises may prevent the disease from limiting your ability to walk and participate in everyday activities. They also improve blood flow throughout the body, which may help the bone heal more quickly.
A physical therapist can also help you alter the way you walk to avoid limping or putting too much stress on the affected joint. This helps ensure that you are able to use the joint without feeling pain for the long term.
The duration of physical therapy varies depending on the location of a lesion and how quickly your body responds to medication and physical therapy. After four to eight weeks, your therapist and physician assess your progress and determine whether additional treatment is required.